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Verdi, G. (1813-1901)

Il trovatore

The Troubadour

Composed 1851-1853.
First performed January 19, 1853.
Libretto by Salvatore Cammarano and Leone Emanuele Bardare (in Itarian),
after Gutierrez.

A Summary of gIl trovatoreh

Act 1
In the 15th century, in the Aragon, Spain, Count di Lunafs younger brother is sickly from birth. It is blamed on an old gipsy woman, so she is burnt at the stake. Then, Lunafs brother also goes missing. Some unknown bones are also found in the ashes.
As time passes, Count di Luna grows up to be an honorable aristocrat. And, he falls in love with Leonora who is a queenfs servant. But, Leonora loves a troubadour, Manrico, who also loves her in return.

Act 2
Manricofs mother is a gypsy, Azucena. She tells her son, when her mother was murdered at the stake, she stole the countfs baby, and threw the baby in the fire. But, she made a mistake. She threw not the countfs baby but her own baby.

Act 3
Count di Luna arrests Azucena for the following reason that she is the old gipsy womanfs daughter and Manricofs mother. Manrico is infuriated by Lunafs action. He and his fellows fight against Lunafs army.

Act 4
Count di Luna catches Manrico. He condemns Manrico and Azucena to death. Leonora begs Luna to save her lover's life. She tells Luna that she yields herself to him in exchange for her lover's life. And, she secretly takes poison.
Manrico puts the blame on Leonorafs behavior. Then, she collapses in his arms due to the poison. Manrico understands her behavior, but itfs too late.
Count di Luna is infuriated to be deceived by her. He condemns Manrico to death, again. Even though Azucena counsels Luna to stop, Manrico is executed. Then, Azucena exclaims, and says to Luna, gManrico is your brother! cI have realized my revenge, Mum!h

A Comment on gIl trovatoreh

This opera, gIl trovatore,h is composed by Giuseppe Verdi. His previous work is gRigoletto,h and his following work is gLa Traviata.h gIl trovatoreh is one of the most famous operas in the middle of Verdifs composition career.
This operafs summary is very complicated, and this operafs image is very dark, for example, a curse, a burning at the stake, and revenge. But, this operafs first performance in 1853 was very successful. A point worthy of special mention is that Verdi likes the character, Azucena. Verdi thought about naming this opera gAzucena.h

The superior point of this opera isnft the music or the drama, but the gsinging.h If you want to feel the power of opera singing, I recommend you watch this opera. There are four leading roles, Leonora, Azucena, Manrico, and Count di Luna which are sung by four distinct voice types, Soprano, Mezzo Soprano, Tenor, and Bariton. In addition, there is the famous chorus, gAnvil Chorush sung by the gypsies, and the beautiful chorus, gMiserereh sung by the six male groups.

There are also a lot of great arias in this opera, for example, Leonorafs gD'amor sull'ali rosee (On the rosy wings of love)h in act 4, Azucenafs gStride la vampa (The flames are roaring!)h in act 2 and Count di Lunafs gIl balen del suo sorriso (The light of her smile)h in act 2. However, the aria that is the most worthy of attention, is Manricofs gDi quella pira l'orrendo foco (The horrid flames of that pyre)h in act 3. It is necessary for the Tenor to sing dramatically in a gHigh C.h

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